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Canada: The Role of the University Sector in National Research and Development


This chapter presents the structure of the Canadian higher education system and the relationship between Canadian universities and research and development (R&D) at the national level. In Canada, the constitutional jurisdiction for higher education resides at the provincial level. Research and development constitute a large portion of the federal government’s investment in postsecondary education. Using OECD and national data, we describe R&D in Canada from 1997 to 2017, with an emphasis on the university sector. We compare these trends over time with policy changes that have separated or integrated a national approach to skills training (workforce development) and innovation (science and technology). An overview of Canadian research activity is provided, including publication rates, citation rates, international collaborations, doctoral degree conferral rates, and the percentage of the population with advanced degrees.


Bégin-Caouette, O., Jones, G. A., Stephenson, G. K. et Metcalfe, A. S. (2021). Canada: The Role of the University Sector in National Research and Development. Dans T. Aarrevaara, M. Finkelstein, G. A. Jones et J. Jung (dir.), Universities in the Knowledge Society: The Nexus of National Systems of Innovation and Higher Education , coll. "The Changing Academy – The Changing Academic Profession in International Comparative Perspective" (p. 375-392). Springer International Publishing.

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G.A. Jones
G.K. Stephenson
Amy Scott Metcalfe